by Gregg Miner
|There are plenty of
Chicago instrument manufacturers with extremely convoluted histories...perhaps
none more so than H. J. Flower, who either -
D) All of the above
- his personal "May Flower" brand of bowl back mandolins around the 1900's.
I'll explore that as much as I can below, but of course, I'm here to talk about harp guitars.
|I was more than a little excited when
historian Jim Garber sent images of a rare 1901 May Flower catalog - as
"and Harp Guitars" was boldly announced on the cover. NOTE
1 Even more so when I discovered several harp
guitar images contained within. Unfortunately, none of them were, in
fact, May Flower instruments!
|The first one we see is a fascinating specimen on an
artist's endorsement page - none other than our old friend Signor
Calamara from the 1899 Bohmann catalog.
The text states: "Although I have been playing certain Harp Guitars
heretofore and have been otherwise identified with them, I wish to add
my words of praise for the May Flower." This seems to imply that
Calamara traded in his Bohmann instrument for a May Flower, presumably
the one he is holding. The line "Harp-Guitars Made to Order"
at page bottom certainly reinforces this belief.
But is it a May Flower harp guitar? I highly doubt it. For one thing, when I read the second paragraph, my interpretation is the simple explanation that Calamara is referring, not to harp guitars, but to May Flower mandolins - which he recommends to his mandolin students (obviously Calamara played and taught various stringed instruments).
|The picture is explained simply: Flower just happened to use a provided publicity shot of Calamara with one of his harp guitars (unlikely the harp guitarist would have in his press kit a pose with a mandolin).|
|The second reason for my doubt is that this thing has
"Bohmann" written all over it - and being a prominent endorser
in Bohmann catalog of just two years prior, why wouldn't it be
Note (at left) the strange shortened bass peghead, which is similar (perhaps identical) to Bohmann's own (at right). Most builders did not provide a full 12 sub-basses - here we see that Calamara has it now fully strung with sub-basses, unlike his previous Bohmann specimen (far right).
But the most interesting feature is the body! It sure looks like an early precursor to the sloped shoulder design Bohmann would patent 15 years later (see the final specimens at the bottom of The Harp Guitars of Joseph Bohmann).
|There is, of course, a slight chance that this harp guitar is both a Bohmann and a May Flower. The next image hints at a possible scenario...|
|A second image in the May Flower catalog containing three harp guitars got my heart racing - until I said, "wait a minute - these guys look familiar!" Sure enough, it was the same group from the Bohmann catalog!|
Edgar A. Benson's Celebrated Mandolin Orchestra, Chicago, Ill. from the 1901 May Flower catalog.
The Steinway Mandolin Orchestra from the 1899 Bohmann catalog.
|A couple interesting points: The group is now
going under a new name ( Edgar
A. Benson's Celebrated Mandolin Orchestra of Chicago, instead of The Steinway Mandolin Orchestra)
- even though the photograph is clearly from the same photo shoot (a few
guys having played "musical chairs")!
Secondly, the group now "uses and recommends the May Flower mandolin." Well, I highly doubt that they also switched instruments during the session. So what's going on? I suppose they could have switched from Bohmann mandolins to May Flower mandolins during the intervening two years - but why would Flower then use the Bohmann image? Could Bohmann have made mandolins for H. J. Flower?
There is no implication that the harp guitars are "May Flower" brand instruments, which is just as well! So we are left with my original speculations on these three instruments discussed in The Harp Guitars of Joseph Bohmann.
|By now you should be saying, "OK, so wait a minute - I thought this article was called "May Flower Harp Guitars!"|
|True enough - I've kind of led you on. The speculation
about the harp guitars in the May Flower catalog went nowhere - they aren't
May Flower harp guitars, despite the Catalog cover's promise. Luckily, I
had an ace up my sleeve - an actual labeled May Flower harp guitar
specimen (so at least once they made good on their promise to fill custom
Pictured in the Form 2a Gallery, this instrument, the only May Flower yet discovered, is owned by harp guitar enthusiast David Jorgensen, who brought it to the 2nd Harp Guitar Gathering where I photographed it, and Larson expert Robert Hartman examined it. Bob and others have previously stated the belief that some or all guitars and mandolins marked May Flower that were built between 1900-1910 were built by the Larson brothers. This instrument has design similarities (especially the "Stauffer-style" bass headstock) as two other suspected Larson-built Chicago brands - Meyers and Leland.
So, in this case, we seem to have a Larson-built May Flower brand harp guitar; in the catalog above, we have a possible Bohmann connection, or simply the announced ability to custom build "May Flower" harp guitars. Built by whom is the question.
|The surviving instrument above is not dated,
but bears a striking similarity to this instrument pictured in the
Cadenza magazine, Feb, 1911. The surviving specimen has a screwed-on
headstock joining bracket that may or may not be original. This one has
an apparent wooden joining bracket that is presumably original, though
it looks like an afterthought. The metal tuner cover over the identical
Stauffer-style bass headstock may be missing or unresolved in the image.
All other proportions seem identical (compare to frontal image below).
And hidden in the lower picture is what may be a similar, but very fancy May Flower harp guitar. It appears in an undated (c.1900) Rudolph Wurlitzer Co. brochure advertising Brandt mandolins.
(courtesy of Rich Myers)
|Note in the photo below the stamped logo in the back seam. While all capitalized, the letters are slightly separated to read "MAY FLOWER." Which brings us to...........|
The "May Flower" line of mandolins, mandolas and guitars was named after Harry Flower's daughter May. At right, from the back of the 1901 catalog, May poses with her namesake mandolin (looking like she wants to beat her father over the head with it).
Provenance of May Flower instruments is hard to decipher for several reasons. One, Harry Flower put his name on a couple of different, related companies, whose history is still unclear. Two, the name was licensed to Lyon & Healy and likely others, such as the Wurlitzer company, besides being applied to Flower's own instruments built by persons or factories unknown. Three, the name has permutated into several spellings, that may or may not be related to the date, responsible company or builder. These are:
Michael Holmes' Mugwumps Encyclopedia of American Fretted Instrument Makers lists the following Flower entries:
Michael (often the best and quickest source of information) also provide further details: "He (Harry) opened Mayflower Music, a retail shop, in 1900 in partnership with W. H. Austin. In January, 1904 Flower announced a line of instruments named for his daughter May, that he would sell direct to dealers, but by February the agency for their distribution had been placed with JOSEPH W. STERN & CO. In 1905, "Mayflower" was all one word. One circa 1910 Mayflower guitar has been reported with a label marked "Flower & Groeschl." In 1912 LYON & HEALY announced that they had obtained the sole rights to the name and distribution of Mayflower mandolins and guitars. Later, in the 1920s, STROMBERG-VOISINET advertised a line of Mayflower instruments."
To the Mugwumps listing, I would add "c.1897 to c.1910" to the third entry, as the 1901 catalog demonstrates that the brand was started at least that early, and not in 1904 (when apparently another announcement appeared).
In addition, collector Lowell Levinger owns a "May Flower" (at right) with a Wurlitzer label (Cincinnati, OH), stating "The Rudolph Wurlitzer Company - Sole Factor." Meaning they alone had the rights to distribute or manufacture this brand at one time. What time? The label appears identical to the label illustrated in the 1901 catalog (below), which has "Antone Valletti, Naples Italy" in place of the Wurlizter name. This label does not say "trade mark" as does the Wurlitzer label. Valletti's name appears on the catalog cover, implying that (at least in 1901) he is the manufacturer of the mandolins, with Flower his U.S. agent.
None of this tells us who built the original mandolins, guitars and harp guitars for Flower at any given time. Likely, there is some extremely convoluted history here as Flower attempted to keep his pet brand alive from the 1890s through the 'teens.
While others help unravel the puzzle, I'll be on the lookout for more May Flower harp guitars!
NOTE 1. The May Flower catalog contains no date, but most of the artist endorsements are dated 1901, the latest being July 20th, 1901. Thus, late 1901 seems a reasonable estimate for production of the catalog. A Sept. 20th, 1900 artist's letter mentions playing a May Flower for 3 years, so the mandolins were available from at least 1897 on.
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